AlAfghani, MM and Paramita D, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Phasing-Out Regulation in Indonesia, Final Report. All rights reserved.
In the European Union, the use of PCB in open applications (e.g. printing inks, adhesives) has been banned since 1976, based on Directive 76/403/EEC. In addition, the use of PCBs as a chemical intermediate or as a raw material has been banned since 1985, under the Directive 85/467/EEC 6th amendment to Directive 76/769/EEC. The EU has long history in regulating PCBs as follows (Enno Christian, 2005):
Almost all of EU member states use the EU Directive limit (50ppm) to determine whether a material is contaminated with PCB or not in which this limit is relevant to the Stockholm Convention. However, some countries have more stricter limit such as the Netherland (0,5 ppm per 7 congeners), Austria (30 ppm) and Norway (zero limit but in practice 50 ppm limit is acceptable) (Enno Christian, 2005).
Since the Stockholm Convention has been in force since 2004, most of the Member States have initiated necessary measures to implement the convention and promote environmentally sound management of PCBs. With regards to EU, it was stated that although the EU community has already had legal instruments that is relevant to the Stockholm Convention, it is responsible to perform obligations imposed by the convention49.
Transformer can be retrofilled to the level that us is allowed by the Directive 96/59/EC. For transformers in service with less than 5000 ppm (less than 500 KVA), retrofilling is considered as cost effective50. In addition, in service transformers with less than 50 ppm can be left in service and left alone51.
49 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutant (POPs) http://www.pops.int/documents/signature/signstatus.htm