AlAfghani, MM and Paramita D, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Phasing-Out Regulation in Indonesia, Final Report. All rights reserved.
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal (1989) (“Basel Convention”) aims to reduce the movement of hazardous wastes, minimize the hazardous wastes production, ensure the environmentally sound manner of waste disposal as close to the possible source as possible and assists developing country in the environmentally sound of hazardous waste management that they generate1. The Convention covers toxic, poisonous, explosive, corrosive, flammable, ecotoxic and infectious wastes that are being moved from one country to another (transboundary movements). In 1995, the Ban Amendment was introduced in order to strengthen the Convention. It prohibits the export of hazardous waste, for any reason, from an OECD member state to non-OECD countries. In addition, in 1999, a protocol on liability and compensation was adopted.
In terms of PCBs, the Annex of the Convention specifically regulates the PCBs as follows:
Basel Convention Annexes Related to PCBs
Annex I: Categories of Waste to Be Controlled (Waste
Waste substance and articles containing or contaminated with PCBs and/or Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) and/or Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs).
Annex VIII, List A
A1. Metal and Metal- Bearing Waste
Electrical waste and electronic assemblies or scarp (e-waste) containing components such as accumulators and other batteries included on list A, mercury-switches, glass from cathode-ray tubes and other activated glass and PCBs capacitors, or contaminated with Annex I constituents (e.g. cadmium, mercury lead, polychlorinated biphenyl) to an extent that theypossess any of the characteristics contained
in Annex III (note the related entry on list B B1110)2
Waste metal cables coated or insulated with plastics containing or contaminated with col tar, PCB 3 , lead, cadmium, other organohalogen compounds or otherAnnex I constituents to an extent that they exhibit Annex III
|Annex VIII, List A||A3180||
Waste substances and articles containing, consisting of or
contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB),
Containing Principally Organic Constituents, Which May Contain Metals and Inorganic
|polychlorinated terphenyl (PCT), polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) or polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), or any other polybrominated analogues of these compounds, at a concentration level of 50 mg/kg or more4.|
The Basel Convention defines PCBs as any material or substance containing a PCB concentration more than 50 ppm. Furthermore, unidentified appliances must be alleged to be PCB-containing while awaiting their identification by screening or laboratory analysis5. This definition is important as it includes6:
Indonesia has ratified the Convention through Presidential Decree No. 61/1993 on Basel Convention Ratification and the Presidential Regulation No. 47/2005 on the Ratification of the Amendment of Basel Convention.
1 Chemical Convention Handbook, http://www.ntn.org.au/cchandbook/basel/desc_sc3.html
2 PCBs are at a concentration level of 50 mg/kg or more
4 The 50 mg/kg level is considered to be an internationally practical level for all wastes. However, many individual countries have established lower regulatory levels (e.g. 20 mg/kg) for specific wastes.
5 Preparation of a National Environmentally Sound Management Plan for PCBs and PCB-Contaminated Equipment, UNEP, B.C, 2003