AlAfghani, MM and Paramita D, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Phasing-Out Regulation in Indonesia, Final Report. All rights reserved.
B3 waste treatment shall be treated by anyone who produces it. In the event that the person cannot treat the waste he/she has to transferit to the party who treats the B3 waste or export the B3 waste that he/she had produced169 Government Regulation 101 on B3 Waste outlines several treatment options of B3 wastes in general, which includes (i) Thermal Process, (ii) Solidification/Stabilisation and (iii) other means.
GR No. 101 stipulates that the B3 waste treatment through thermal process has to meet several standards such as emission standard, combustion efficiency and the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for the principle organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) which includes PCBs, Polychlorinated dibenzofuran, and Polychlorinated dibenzo p-dioksin. The combustion efficiency minumun should be 99,99% and the DRE should be equal or more than 99,9999%170. The GR mandated the formulation of the emissionstandard through the Ministry regulation171. Nevertheless, this regulation is not yet issued until this report is made.
The residue and/or the combustion residue from the thermal process have to be kept172. Some standards that have to be meet are173:
Although permitted by existing regulations, B3 waste treatment especially POPs with combustion at the incinerator or kiln cement should be avoided due to the reasons below:
Annex C, V. A (d) of the Stockholm Convention reads:
“Priority should be given to the consideration of approaches to prevent the formation and release of the chemicals listedin Part I (PCDD/PCDF, HBC, PCB): Replacement of feed materials which are persistent organic pollutants of where there is a direct link between the materials and releases of persistent organic pollutants from the source”.
In terms of unintentional production of POPs, the Stockholm Convention prioritize the use of technology which couldform PCDD/PCDF, HBC, PCBs as listedunder list I Annex C. Annex C, V B (b) of the Convention reads:
“When considering proposals to constructnew facilities or significantly modifyexisting facilities using processes that release chemicals listed in this Annex, priority consideration should be given to alternative processes, techniques or practices that have similar usefulness but which avoid the formation and release of such chemicals.”
Furthermore, several literatures suggest against using thermal processes: (i) the investment to control unintentional releaseof dioxin or other POPs is huge176; incineration may result in large amount of solid wastes (fly ash and residues), Dioxin,Furan and otherPOPs can be released177; the technology is controversial and opposed by environmental groupsand communities178; for Cement kiln air pollution controls (APC) there are potentials for products of incomplete combustion/PIC179; the DRE (Destruction and Removal Efficiency) is generally applicable for gases/air emission but does not include liquid and solid toxic contaminants (bottom ash and liquid waste).180
Non Thermal Processes
Several non-thermal processes may include Dehalogenation processes: Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) and metal based sodium. Similarto the above thermal processes, the by- product of such technology must become a factor for consideration. For example, BCD may produce soluble which contains Chlorin and further treatment for such materials may be required.
169 GR 101/2014, Article 123(1)
170 GR 101/2014, Article 107 (4), (5), (6),(7)
171 GR 101/2014, Article 107 (8)
172 GR 101/2014 , Article 143 (1) h
173 GR 101/2014 , Article 107 (1), (2), (3), (4), (6),(7), (8)
174 The Articles states “Disposed of in such a way that the persistent organic pollutant content is destroyed or irreversibly transformed so that they do not exhibit the characteristics of persistent organic pollutants or otherwise disposed of in an environmentally sound manner when destruction or irreversible transformation does not represent the environmentally preferable option……….”
175 The Articles states “Not permitted to be subjected to disposal operations that may lead to recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct reuse or alternative uses of persistent organic pollutants”
176 Allsop, Michelle, Costner, Pat, et.al, Incineration and Human Health, Greenpeace Research Laboratories, University of Exeter, UK, 2001, p.37, http://www.greenpeace.org/norway/Global/norway/p2/other/report/2001/incineration-and-human-health.pdf
177 Reference Guide to Non Combustion Technologies for Remediation of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Soil, Second Edition 2010, US – EPA, p. vii, https://www.epa.gov/remedytech/reference-guide-non-combustion- technologies-remediation-persistent-organic-pollutants
179 Karstensen, K. H. (2008). Formation, release and control of dioxins in cement kilns. Chemosphere, 70(4), 543-560. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.454.9778&rep=rep1&type=pdf
180 Rahuman, Mujeebur, Pristone, Luigi, et.al, Destruction Technologies for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), ICS-UNIDO Publications “Proceedings of Expert Group Meetings on POPs and Contamination: Remediation Technologies (April 2000) and on Clean Technologies for the Reduction and Elimination of POPs (May 2000), p. 8, https://clu- in.org/download/remed/destruct_tech.pdf